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Sightseeing of Ukraine

ODESSA

Odessa - a unique city and one can not argue with that. And our information page about "Pearl of the Sea" will help you ensure in this. So, a bit of history...


Одесса. Театр Odessa or Odesa (Ukrainian: Одеса; Russian: Одесса) is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast (province) located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 (as of the 2001 census). 


The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement, was founded by Hac I Giray, the Khan of Crimea, in 1240 and originally named after him as "Hacbey". After a period of Lithuanian control, it passed into the domain of the Ottoman Sultan in 1529 and remained in Ottoman hands until the Ottoman Empires defeat in the Russo-Turkish War of 1792. The city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Empress Catherine the Great in 1794. From 1819 to 1858 Odessa was a free port. During the Soviet period it was the most important port of trade in the Soviet Union and a Soviet naval base. On January 1, 2000 the Quarantine Pier of Odessa trade sea port was declared a free port and free economic zone for a term of 25 years.

Odessa

In the 19th century it was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after Moscow, Saint Petersburg and Warsaw.[2] Its historical architecture has a style more Mediterranean than Russian, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including Art Nouveau, Renaissance and Classicist.

  Odessa is a warm water port, but is of limited military value.[4] The city of Odessa hosts two important ports: Odessa itself and Yuzhne (also an internationally important oil terminal), situated in the citys suburbs. Another important port, Illichivsk, is located in the same oblast, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major transport hub integrating with railways. Odessas oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russias and EUs respective networks by strategic pipelines.

Name

The origin of the name, or the reasons for naming the town Odessa, are not known. A legend regarding a link with the name of the ancient Greek colony persists, so there might be some truth in the oral tradition. The Turkish name for the district was Yedisan, meaning "seven flags", and this is a more likely explanation of the name Odessa.  Informal name; Pearl of the Black Sea; Odessa-Mama.



  Odessa CatacombsThe Odessa Catacombs are an estimated 2,500 kilometres of labyrinths stretching out under the city and surrounding region of Odessa, Ukraine. The majority of the catacombs are the result of stone mining.

Most of the city’s 19th century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and widened by local smugglers. This created a gigantic labyrinth of underground tunnels beneath Odessa, known as the "catacombs".

Today they are a great attraction for extreme tourists, who explore the tunnels despite the dangers involved. Such tours are not officially sanctioned because the catacombs have not been fully mapped and the tunnels themselves are unsafe. There have been incidents of people becoming lost in the tunnel network, and dying of dehydration or rockfalls.

Only one small portion of the catacombs is open to the public, within the "Museum of Partisan Glory" in Nerubayskoye, north of Odessa.

The tunnels are often cited as the reason why a subway system has never been built in Odessa.
The first underground stone mines started to appear in the 19th century, while vigorous construction took place in Odessa. They were used as a source of cheap construction materials. Limestone was cut using saws, and mining became so intensive that by the second half of the 19th century, the extensive network of catacombs created many inconveniences to the city.

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, stone mining was banned within the central part of Odessa (inside the Porto-Franko zone, bounded by Old Port Franko and Panteleymonovskaya streets).

During World War II the catacombs served as a hiding places for Soviet partisans, in particular the squad of V.A. Molodtsev. In his work The Waves of The Black Sea, Valentin Kataev described the battle between Soviet partisans against fascist invaders, underneath Odessa and its nearby suburb Usatovo.
In 1961 the "Search" (Poisk) club was created in order to explore the history of partisan movement among the catacombs. Since its creation, it has expanded understanding of the catacombs, and provided information to expand mapping of the tunnels.

Since the beginning of the 21st century limestone mining has continued in the mines located in Dofinovka, Byldynka, and "Fomina balka" near Odessa. As the result of continued mining, the catacombs continue to expand.


Deribasovskaya Street

Deribasovskaya Street Deribasovskaya (Russian: Дерибасовская) or Derybasivska (Ukrainian: Дерибасiвська) Street is a pedestrian walkway in the heart of Odessa, Ukraine. The street is named after Josep de Ribas, who helped build the city, who was its first mayor and who lived on the street.

Along Large Arnautskoy the rope factory of Novikova stretched once, the representative office of the known French company, making the pasteurized wine of "Hays - Raphael was disposed on the contrary". Widely known the largest on South sugar-houses under a firm "Brothers of Bobrinskie".Но on the whole commercial and industrial infrastructure Large Arnautskoy was presented small shops, benchs and workshops. 

On Large Arnautskoy near-by "Delivery" two coaching inns were disposed, in order an arrive man had where to put horse for the night, to bend down a head, and in the morning to wash and drain expect. If who a necessity to give what paper in public establishment went out, so her in two legal bureaus on Large Arnautskoy made not only cleverly but also printed on a yet strange for many machine.


Deribasovskaya

Primary name of street Gimnazskaya, sometimes there is the name high School. Adopted in honour commercial high school of Volseya, opened on the decree of the first governor of a town of city Rishele on April, 16 of 1804г. From July, 6, 1811 a street is named Deribasovskaya or de-ribasovskaya ( in honour the governor of a town De Ribasa).

Odessa. Utyosov Next to the street is Odessa’s first park, which was built shortly after the foundation of the city in 1803 by the De Ribas brothers, Joseph and Felix (Josep and Flix). This park has a fountain, bandstand, and several monuments, including a sculpture of a lion and lioness with her cubs, a chair commemorating the famous book "The Twelve Chairs", two monuments to Leonid Utyosov (a sculpture and also a phone which plays his music), and a monument to Sergey Utochkin, a famous pilot.

Derybasovska Street was previously named Gimnazska Street after the Gymnasium which opened April 16, 1804. It was renamed for de Ribas on July 6, 1811, being called Derybasovska or de Ribasovska or even Ribasovska. During the first years of Bolshevik rule (1920 - 1938) it was named after the German socialist Ferdinand Lassalle. From 1938 to 1941, it was called Chkalov Street. Finally, on November 19, 1941, it was renamed Derybasovska.

Derybasovska Street runs from near Polska Street up to the Preobrazhenska and Sadova, crossing Pushkinska, Rishelyevska, Katerynynska, Havanna, and Vice-Admiral Zhukov Lane.